Overview

Nexavar® (sorafenib) tablets, is approved in more than 100 countries for the treatment for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common form of liver cancer, and for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), or kidney cancer.

Nexavar is an oral, novel multiple kinase inhibitor that targets proteins involved in both tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis, or the formation of new blood vessels that support the growth of cancer cells.  It is the only approved drug shown to inhibit the enzyme RAF kinase, which is a critical component of the RAS pathway — an important cascade of chemical signals that controls cell division. Abnormal activation of the RAS pathway is believed to play an integral role in the genesis of many cancers. Additionally, Nexavar inhibits VEGFR-1, -2 and -3, and PDGFR-ß, key receptors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), which play important roles in angiogenesis.  Nexavar also inhibits other tyrosine kinases such as c-KIT, RET and FLT-3.

Partner Status

Onyx and Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Inc. are developing and marketing Nexavar under collaboration and co-promotion agreements. According to these agreements, Onyx and Bayer each fund 50 percent of the development costs for Nexavar worldwide, excluding Japan, where Bayer funds all product development. With Bayer, Onyx is co-promoting Nexavar in the United States and sharing equally in any profits or losses. Outside of the U.S., Bayer has exclusive marketing rights and Onyx shares profits 47 percent Onyx / 53 percent Bayer, excluding Japan, where Onyx receives a royalty.

Important Safety Considerations

Nexavar in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel is contraindicated in patients with squamous cell lung cancer. Nexavar may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Women of childbearing potential are advised to avoid becoming pregnant and female patients should also be advised against breastfeeding while receiving Nexavar. Cardiac ischemia and/or myocardial infarction may occur. Temporary or permanent discontinuation of Nexavar should be considered in patients who develop cardiac ischemia and/or myocardial infarction. Gastrointestinal perforation was an uncommon adverse reaction and has been reported in less than 1% of patients taking Nexavar. Uncommon but serious adverse reactions, including keratoacanthomas/squamous cell cancer of the skin and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, have been reported in clinical trials. An increased risk of bleeding may occur following Nexavar administration. If bleeding necessitates medical intervention, consider discontinuation of Nexavar. Hypertension may occur early in the course of treatment. Monitor blood pressure weekly during the first 6 weeks and periodically thereafter and treat, as required. Hand-foot skin reaction and rash are common and management may include topical therapies for symptomatic relief. In cases of any severe or persistent adverse reactions, temporary treatment interruption, dose modification, or permanent discontinuation of Nexavar should be considered. Temporary interruption of Nexavar therapy is recommended in patients undergoing major surgical procedures. Elevations in serum lipase and reductions in serum phosphate of unknown etiology have been associated with Nexavar. Caution is recommended when administering Nexavar with compounds that are metabolized/eliminated predominantly by the UGT1A9 pathway, UGT1A1 pathway (eg, irinotecan), doxorubicin, docetaxel, fluorouracil, and substrates of CYP2B6 and CYP2C8, and CYP3A4 inducers. Concomitant use of carboplatin and paclitaxel with sorafenib resulted in an increase in paclitaxel exposure and an increase in Nexavar exposure. Patients taking concomitant warfarin should be monitored regularly for changes in prothrombin time, INR, or clinical bleeding episodes. Nexavar exposure decreases when coadministered with oral neomycin. Effects of other antibiotics on Nexavar pharmacokinetics have not been studied. Most common adverse reactions reported for Nexavar-treated patients vs placebo-treated patients in unresectable HCC, respectively, were: diarrhea (55% vs 25%), fatigue (46% vs 45%), abdominal pain (31% vs 26%), weight loss (30% vs 10%), anorexia (29% vs 18%), nausea (24% vs 20%), and hand-foot skin reaction (21% vs 3%). Grade 3/4 adverse reactions were 45% vs 32%. Most common adverse reactions reported for Nexavar-treated patients vs placebo-treated patients in advanced RCC, respectively, were: diarrhea (43% vs 13%), rash/desquamation (40% vs 16%), fatigue (37% vs 28%), hand-foot skin reaction (30% vs 7%), alopecia (27% vs 3%),and nausea (23% vs 19%). Grade 3/4 adverse reactions were 38% vs 28%. During post-approval use of Nexavar, the following adverse drug reactions have been identified: radiation recall dermatitis, angioedema, and drug-induced hepatitis (life-threatening and fatal cases have been observed).

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